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An **absolute reference** in a formula does not change when the formula is copied or filled.

An absolute reference uses `$`

signs,

`=$B$1`

the column and row do not change.

`=$B1`

the column does not change

`=B$1`

the row does not change

Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Addition: `=B1+B2`

Subtraction: `=B1-B2`

Multiplication: `=B1*B2`

Division: `=B1/B2`

Calculate the commission on sales.

`=A2*B2`

where `A2`

is the rate of commission (entered as a percentage)

`B2`

is the amount of sales